Thursday, 3 May 2012

Tutorial Seven

I have searched or Blogs on Occupational Therapy and Adaptive Snow Sports. I have attached a the websites of these blogs two about adaptive snow sports in the USA, a fellow student's blog and an  OT blog which is based in an Alpine area.
I have sent communication to these blogs and look forward to their reply.See draft 7  for more details on sites.
3. mailto:


Wednesday, 2 May 2012

tutorial 6

tutorial 6
·         What do you think is the intended purpose of the site?  Information can be linked here from the specific sites.
·         How interactive is this site? 
·         How can people contribute?
·         What do they contribute?
·         Make comment on why people choose to contribute to each community. 
·         What is it they are seeking?
·         Is information shared one way or reciprocal?
·         How do you think chosen sites address or relate to occupation concepts introduced in tutorial one e.g. occupational justice, occupational disruption, occupational transition, or occupational deprivation.  Choose at least 2 concepts to discuss. 

Considering material presented during the course and comment on the potential ethical issues that may arise in this community e.g. lack of identity and accountability.
Consider material presented in the online package and comment on the benefits and limitations these communities provide relate to traditional geographical communities.

This is the Adaptive Snow Sports site it communicates with an international community and helps to enable  participation in occupation, these people work with Occupational Therapists who's clients are involved in alpine sports to enable them to participate in this occupation.
Disabled Snow Sports New Zealand / Adaptive Snow Sports state that Mountain Adaptive Programs
Through Disabled Snowsports NZ, adaptive programs have been developed on the mountain, providing support for people with physical, sensory and cognitive impairments.  This allows occupational participation, and involvement in a life situation.  This in turn leads to the persons occupational satisfaction with their engagement in the alpine environment occupations which also allows them to feel that they are accepted.

One of the intended purposes of these sites is to inform the people who participate in and contribute to adaptive snow sports with the knowledge of the latest achievements in the sport. " Winter Park, CO (6 March 2012) – New Zealand’s paralympic gold medalist Adam Hall has risen to the top of the field in a new discipline, winning his first ever Super G at the World Cup level today in Winter Park, Colorado. Hall is now in the running for the overall Super G title. A schedule of events for the Winter Park World Cup may be viewed here" (Paralympic Gold Medallist Adam Hall Wins His First-Ever World Cup Super G March 2012)

Other purposes of this site are to inform people in the international community of Adaptive Snow Sports about achievements, social gatherings and up coming activities and competitions.  It also informs caregivers and therapists about the facilities the program can provide for clients and the facilities available for their participation in the sport. This site links to the http:// Snow Sports New Zealand site and to site and Snow Sports NZ Adaptive.

People contribute to this site by viewing the newsletters that are frequently sent from the Snow Sports site.
They can send correspondence to the web address should they require further information regarding future paticipation during the winter months in snow sports.  There are options to register with the programme as a group or an individual and also options for international groups to register as participants through the online community. "Adaptive Snow Sports is about adapting equipment and lessons and providing accessible support systems to allow people with a wide range of disabilities to take to the snow and experience the freedom of snow sports" (Adaptive Snow Sports NZ, 2012). This online site has a list of events and an option to shop online as well as donate to the program.

There is also within this site information for participants about coaching options.  "We’re committed to the educating and skill-development for all coaches in five different competitive snow sport disciplines: ski racing, free-skiing, snowboarding, Nordic skiing, and adaptive snow sports" (Adaptive Snow Sports NZ, 2012).

This website is launching a new website in about a month but is similar to what is already here.  It does have a face book group for invited members  - who communicate with each other daily – there is also a face book page for the manager which is a work related one. The main purpose of the website is for information. The new site will have a link to face book published on it.
Most people contribute by viewing and some of the participants contribute by having themselves as a subject of the News Letters in particular the international competitors.  This site is a good way to keep in  touch with what is going on in the other hemispheres during the off season. It is a way of finding out what is happening in other alpine communities.  If the participant is unable to be in the alpine envronment they can connect and still be involved through the site and gain information about the sport.  The information can be one way because it is a news letter it doesn't allow the person to immediately respond  but the site does allow people to email back and or join to it.

This site allows occupational engagement by connecting to it and encourages and contributes information for further engagement outside of the site such as occupational performance, adaptive snow sports.  This occupational performance contributes to occupational satisfaction being content with ones engagement in an activity or an environment. It shows how an environment can be adjusted to facilitate and encourage engagement in  occupations that a normal individual might perform.  Something to look at for the future to be more balanced would be to publish more about the grass-routes skiers rather than just the high performance area.

Ethical issues that arise in this community might include the confidentiality of the clients of the adaptive program. The use of photos of the impaired athletes, permission needs to be obtained.
All photos used have permission. At the Festival they have they have signed consent as part of registration. Others are given to snow sports for use.

Some of the limitations that this community has are that it doesn't have a blog site so that each member can correspond with another although it does have a face book page. It is only about ski-ing and snowboarding and other snow sports are not represented.  It sends a majority of messages about its achievers, but there are fewer about the recreational participants. 

The benefits are that it keeps people in touch with each other and it creates a sense of community and commeradery.  It promotes participation in occupation and sees impairment as acceptable.  This site updates its participants with information about the events and activities for the coming winter and it inspires participation in an enhancing and empowering alpine sport.

Friday, 27 April 2012

Adaptive Snow Sports Nationals

Tutorial Five


1. Adaptive Snow Sports National titles p1. mp4 retrieved May 2012 from  /watch?v=MgVL57SlBkA 

2.  Disabled Snow Sports NZ National Championships - Part 1 R.S.V.P productions retrieved       April 2012 from 

3. Disabled Snow Sports NZ Nationals Championship-Part3 from  /watch?v=MgVL57SlBkA

4. Adaptive Snow Sports national titles p2. mp4 retrieved May 2012 from 

  The links on the front page under tutorial five are also websites containing videos of snow sports.

Monday, 2 April 2012

Tutorials four and five Occupational Deprivation

Tutorial Four:
  • Technical description of the planning for the video
  • The video we decided to do was of a wheelchair user and their occupational deprivation.
  • We decided to make it black and white like a Carlie Chaplin movie.
  • We used a motorised wheelchair although we had planned to use a manual.
  • Everyone in the group was given a job to do.
  • We had an experienced photographer which was an asset.
  • One person organised the shots and what they were of, which took a lot of planning.
  • We had three actors, one was in the chair and two others who were in the fire scene and outside, other people helped with the editing and set up.
  • We decided to film the wheelchair user in the toilet with tripod.
  • Then in the hallway as if there was a fire to show how difficult it is for a wheelchair user to leave the building.
  •  We went outside to some stairs to show the stairs as inaccessible for the wheelchair user.
  •  Lastly we went to the library and filmed the wheelchair user reaching for a book to show its limitations.                  
It did not take very long to film, we built a sequence.  The editing was also done very quickly due to the efficiency of the group and we put in some credits for the group.  We used on screen graphics and titles as part of thescripting and the film showed moods, facial expressions and movements. The setting was in the library and around G Block.

Finally we have our video Occupational Deprivation. Not all people are given equal opportunities to participate in their chosen occupations according to Christiansen and Townsend (2010).

Christiansen, C.H., & Townsend, E.A. (2010). Introduction to occupation: The art and science of 
                     living (2nd Ed.).Upper Saddle River, N.J., U.S.A: Pearson Education, Inc.

Friday, 23 March 2012

Tutorial Eight

Assistive technology is equipment that assists people with their activities. It includes technology that contributes to the persute of leisure,work and daily living. It is a regular, reliable, repeatable peice of equipment that doesn't cause fatigue. This may also cover technology that is used by the able bodied person or child along with the disabled. "Assistive technology is technology used by individuals with disabilities in order to perform functions that might otherwise be diffcult or possible" (University of Washington,2002-2012).

A peice of equipment introduced in the assistive technology tutorial is the Power wheelchair supplied by Allied Medical/Quantum. This chair helps to increase occupations such as transportation and social interaction by raising the seat. Can engage people in communication via the internet and use of a laptop. A green button clicks the mouse on and it enables the user to operate the joystick to control a mouse. It can also record a video via a screen. This chair is a tilt-in-space chair so it enables the user to be occupied in a 45 degree recline. Tilt-in-space enables gravity to open the chest cavity takes pressure off the lungs assisting the users breathing. This chair is 18" by 18" (inches) it costs $15,000 plus $8,000 without seating. The seating costs around $3,000 to $5,000. This chair assists a person in their occupational transition. From being able bodied to becomming reliant on it for a means of transportation.

Occupational transition according to Christiansen and Townsend (2010), can be defined as a great change in the retertoire of a persons Occupations. The chair allows people to participate in activity and assists them by encouraging participation. Occupational disruption results from factors or situations over which a person has some control. The chair by provides a means of transport and it supports the person in occupations that may be disrupted had they no assistive device. "Deprivation occurs when something or someone external to the individual creates deprivation"(Christiansen & Townsend, 2010). A person in a chair is able to participate in or enjoy occupation over an extended period of time which prevents them from having many of the occupational deprivations the would have should they not be supplied with it. Humans are recognised as occupational beings who participate in occupations and this chair empowers a person by enabling and including them. They have more independence in the chair and their occupational potential is increased both by the chair and its attachments.

Tavas Pastrana has made use of a manual wheelchair. "He's the only person in the world to complete a double backflip on a wheelchair" (Nash, 2011).  Power wheelchairs are often used by people who have severe cases of cerebral palsey. There are seven thousand people in the country with some form of cerebral palsy, with one third of them being less than twenty one years of age (C.P. Society of NZ 1984-2007). Cerebral Palsy has many factors that may cause it; disabilities as a result of brain damage can be complex. Having a comfortable and function enhancing wheelchair can assist by minimising or delaying physical deformities and give support for bodily functions. Spinal Cord Injuries have an impact of condition on occupation, areas of performance that can be enhanced by the use of a power wheelchair are instrumental activities of daily living, education, work, leisure and social participation according to Atchison & Dirette (2007).

Aaron Fotheringham AKA Wheelz performs stunts in his wheelchair as part of the Nitro Circus. Photo / Supplied

Tutorial eight photos of Travis Pastrana unavailable but here is one of his team mates

Aaron "Wheelz" Fotheringham

Nash K. (2011) 


B. J., Aitchison &  D. K. Dirette (2007), Conditions in occupational therapy: Effect on occupational 
         performance.  Baltimore/Philadephia, U.S.A: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 

Cerebral Palsy Society of NZ (1984-2007), Retrieved, March 2012, from

Nash K. (2011), Wheelchair motocross is teen's extreme dream, Retrieved from /nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10702975.

 University of Washington.(2002 - 2012)AccessIT Retrieved, March, 2012 from it/articles?109.

Friday, 16 March 2012

Slide show and Tutorial Two

My chosen occupation is Alpine Snow Sports and skiing. Alpine snow sports involve many activities such as snowboarding, cross country skiing and snow shoeing. These sports can be adapted so that they involve people who have disabilities. Skiing, which is usually done in the winter on snow high in the mountains, can be adapted so that a disabled person can participate in the sport. I have a knowledge of this sport and a passion for it and have seen how this sport has enriched people's lives. It was chosen because of my experience participating in and facilitating this activity.

During my first fieldwork experience I worked with a supervisor and  a physiotherapist who had clients that  took part in this sport.  In my second fieldwork experience some of the clients enjoyed this occupation both as a leisure activity and also competitively. Over the winter months the most rewarding thing for me has been to facilitate disabled skiers and to volunteer as a supervisor for the local children during their school activities on the mountain.

'Doing' according to Wilcock,(1988) is a mechanism for social interaction, development of societies and can form communities with both national and international identity. The slide presentation shows that skiing is an international sport and is popular in many societies. Image one is taken in France and image two is in New Zealand. The image of the Canadian free-styler is taken in New Zealand while he was here to train to take advantage of our winter season. The image of Lindsay Vonn winning the womens downhill reresents the  commuities that compete internationally.  These images represent the international goals and community of skiing.

Being can be described as finding oneself, makeing the most of every moment, appreciating nature, in a thoughtful manner and enjoy being with special people according to Hammell (2004). The prize-giving picture shows a large community of local families actively involved with their children in their occupation of being. The pic-nic at Matuki is of people appreciating nature with enjoying each others company. Being a part of the alpine environment and the people who belong to that environment is one of the necessities of snow sports. This we can see in the pictures of the children, Luca and Ben, interacting with the snow.

Hammell (2004) states that belonging brings together the affirmation that one's life has value for other people as well as oneself , reciprocal exchange is of importance, contributing to others agrees with the concept of belonging.  Conributing to a community of people such as the people in the picture of the bi-ski, gives a sense of belonging and they are provided with social interaction. This social interaction is necessary to participate in an alpine sport. From the hours of early morning social interaction is ongoing which consists of the occupations of organizing equipment, transport, tickets and weather forecasts. It is necessary to organise friends or groups of people to participate in the sport and to finally reach the lift line on a cool clear day as seen in the picture of Treble Cone.

'Becoming' allows people to use their capacity both physically and mentally and they can change to meet certain expectations.  Adam Hall,  an impaired skiier,  has become an international competitor for New Zealand. He does this by adapting his equipment allowing him to participate in Adaptive Snow Sports. He has an impairment but he uses his capacities and potential. He changes his equipment to meet the sociocultural expectaions and regulations of the sport as seen in the slide of him racing. Becomming describes the idea that people can explore new opportunities and have visions about what they wish to become according to Hammell (2004). 

Considerations that were made in relation to the images are informed consent from Adaptive Snow Sports
New Zealand, personal communications via the people who are in the photos and online material was verified as being authentic.


Wilcock, A.A. (1998a). Occupation for health. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 340-345
Hammell, K.W. (2004). Dimensions of meaning in the occupations of daily life.  Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71 (5).